What Started the Disagreement with Spain over Florida

On May 12, 1805, Monroe and U.S. envoy Charles Pinckney presented Spain in Madrid “the ultimate conditions under which they were authorized to adjust the points according to the two governments. The proposals were absolutely rejected, and Mr. Monroe, who was considering the negotiations, asked for his passports and received them,” acknowledging “the complete failure of the mission in all its objectives.” [5] p. 293 Monroe “sought, but in vain, the influence of the French government in favor of the construction [of the United States] of the treaty and [also] to assist in the acquisition of territories east of the Perdido River.” [5] p. 288-291 In response to the call of the Americans and Spain, in the late summer of 1804, Napoleon sent to the American government “that the eastern frontier of Louisiana was undoubtedly the Mississippi, the Iberville, and the lakes, as stated in the 1762 treaty; and that the double assignment since then offered no basis for a new claim. [1] [26] pp. 109-110 The last military operations of the war were conducted in Manila. An expedition led by Major General Wesley Merritt arrived in July and camped north of the city. Preparations for an attack were made amid growing signs of resistance from the Philippine uprisings led by Emilio Aguinaldo. He had become the leader of a revolutionary eruption in 1896-1897 that ended in an armistice. He moved to Hong Kong, and in May 1898 Commodore Dewey transported him to Manila, where he set out to revive his movement. During the summer, he managed to take control of a vast territory in Luzon, and his troops attempted to conquer Manila.

Dewey provided some supplies, but did not recognize the government appointed by Aguinaldo. According to the provisions of the treaty after the Seven Years` War, “in 1763, what was then known as Louisiana was divided between Britain and Spain. The France lost all its possessions in North America as a result of this treaty. In addition to Canada, it ceded the river and port of Mobile and all its possessions on the left bank of the Mississippi to Great Britain, with the exception of New Orleans and the island on which it was located. The rest of Louisiana was ceded to Spain in a separate and secret treaty. The cession of Florida to Great Britain was the price of cuba`s restoration to Spain. Britain divided the region into East and West Florida. [5] pp. 288-291 Before 1762, the France owned and administered the lands west of the Perdido River as part of La Louisiane. In 1762, the France signed a secret treaty with Spain, which, after its revelation in 1764, had ceded all French lands west of the Mississippi River as well as the island of New Orleans to Spain. In the fall of 1803 Jefferson embodied “his views in a pamphlet entitled `The Limits and Bounds of Louisiana.`” [23] Jefferson had asked some U.S. officials in the territorial border area to “share with him their views on the mapping of Louisiana.

Daniel Clark, who was best informed about them, did not believe that the cession went beyond the line established in the treaty of 1763, and [William] Dunbar agreed with his view. . [William C.C.] Claiborne and John Sibley de Natchitoches were inclined to favor the Perdido`s claim, but their views were obviously determined by politics rather than precise information. The content of their answers gave the president little comfort. [1] pp. 87-88 The Seven Years` War ended with the signing of the Treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris in February 1763. In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all its claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French possessions overseas. In 1810, these American settlers rebelled in west Florida and declared their independence from Spain. President James Madison and Congress used the incident to claim the region, knowing full well that the Spanish government had been seriously weakened by Napoleon`s invasion of Spain. The United States claimed that the portion of West Florida from the Mississippi to the Perdido Rivers was part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

Negotiations on Florida began in earnest with Don Luis de OnĂ­s` mission to Washington in 1815 to meet with Secretary of State James Monroe. The problem was not resolved until Monroe was president and John Quincy Adams his secretary of state. Although Spanish relations between the United States were strained by suspicions of American support for the Spanish-American colonies` struggles for independence, the situation became critical when General Andrew Jackson captured the Spanish forts of Pensacola and St. Mark during his authorized raid in 1818 on the Seminoles and escaped slaves who were considered a threat to Georgia. Jackson executed two British citizens accused of inciting Indians and runaways. Monroe`s government seriously considered denouncing Jackson`s actions, but Adams defended the Jacksons, citing the need to restrain escaped Indians and slaves, as the Spanish did not. Adams also felt that Jackson`s Seminole campaign was popular with the Americans and strengthened his diplomatic hand with Spain. Dewey hoped to avoid further hostilities in Manila. To that end, he conducted obscure negotiations with a new Spanish governor in Manila and the city`s Roman Catholic bishop. An agreement was reached on a brief skirmish between Spanish and American forces, followed by the immediate surrender of the city, after which the Americans would prevent Aguinaldo`s troops from entering Manila. General Merritt was suspicious of the agreement, but on September 13 he was suspicious of the agreement.

In August, after American troops crossed a defensive line north of Manila, the Spanish garrison Dewey surrendered. Guerrillas were denied access and U.S. troops occupied the city. America`s persistent failure to recognize the Aguinaldo government has fostered growing distrust. By ceding Louisiana to the United States, the France transferred to them all the rights to that territory that it had acquired from Spain. She could not and would not give up anyone else; and that there could be no room for doubt in this regard, she repeated in her treatise of 30 April 1803 the literal expression of the Treaty of Saint-Ildefonso, by which she had acquired this colony two years earlier. [10] Nor did their 1801 treaty[11] stipulate that the France`s acquisition of Louisiana was a retrocession; that is, Spain returned to the France what it had received in 1762. . On the same day, in the perspective of peace, the France ceded all the territory to England in the east. .